Five thousand mice weigh as much as a man. Astronomical evidence points to a somewhat smaller age. To the mouse and any smaller animal it presents practically no dangers. We have therefore to ask ourselves whether evolution shows signs of intelligent or even instinctive guidance; and if not, whether it can be explained as the outcome of causes which we can see at work around us, and whose action is fairly intelligible. As a matter of fact, there is a marked parallelism between the new genes which have arisen in nearly related species; and this is intelligible because the structure of their nuclei is similar, and the changes likely to occur in them are therefore also similar.
The life of our ancestors goes back for a thousand million years. Suppose it is to the advantage of an animal that two structures A and B—say bones—should increase together, but that variations in them are inherited independently. But the power of flight has been lost on many different occasions, for example by the ostrich and its allies, the kiwi, the dodo, the great auk, the penguin, the weka, the pakapo a flightless parrot , and so on. The extreme socialists desire to run every nation as a single business concern. On the other hand a number of independent arguments, based on well-ascertained facts, converge to the same date for the origin of the earth. Now if its shape is unaltered its surface will be increased only a hundredfold, and ten times as much oxygen must enter per minute through each square millimetre of skin, ten times as much food through each square millimetre of intestine. This is surface tension. Now it is perhaps the most striking characteristic of an intelligent being that he learns from his mistakes. In consequence the moth Oporabia autumnata, which inhabits both woods, has been placed in two different environments. So we can only say that the moon was born somewhere about four thousand million years ago, but the true figure might be as low as one thousand million, or as high as twenty thousand. If the insects had hit on a plan for driving air through their tissues instead of letting it soak in, they might well have become as large as lobsters, though other considerations would have prevented them from becoming as large as man. Some of these are due to accident or disease and are not transmitted to the next generation, others are inheritable. The coloured will produce a majority like themselves and a proportion of whites. Yet like ourselves they carry oxygen around in their blood, and are therefore able to grow far larger than any insects. If our planet was created a few thousand years ago to end a few years or a few thousand years hence, it is conceivable that the main purpose to be worked out on it is the salvation and perfection of individual human beings. The possibilities of mutation do, however, limit the directions in which a species can evolve. It is clear that after an island has been colonized by a winged insect carried by the wind from an adjoining continent, hereditary loss of wings, if not accompanied by degeneration of other structures, will be of value in preventing its successors from being blown out to sea. The assertion is still sometimes made that no one has ever seen natural selection at work. A man coming out of a bath carries with him a film of water of about one-fiftieth of an inch in thickness. Those in which the two are unequally developed will be at a disadvantage, only where both are increased will there be any gain. Hence, in so far as courage and maternal instinct are inherited they will tend to survive, even if they often lead to the death of the individual. It is clear, then, that in mutations of this type we have a means by which subspecies may be formed in nature, and there is strong evidence that they have been so formed. It is not responsible for the existence of organisms, but it remains to be shown that without it organisms would display any tendency to evolve. Among the offspring of the same parents variations occur. We can classify the animals according as the two are of less than the average size, greater than the average or about equal to it. Thus of the genes which alter the wing of the fly Drosophila some have little effect elsewhere, some also affect the balancers rudiments of the second wing pair , others the legs, and so on.
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