Suppose we gave a group of 4-year-olds exactly the same problems and only varied on whether we taught them directly or encouraged them to figure it out for themselves? So comparisons are difficult. Return to the corrected sentence. This sentence originally omitted the names of two of the study's researchers. Patrick Shafto, a machine-learning specialist at the University of Louisville and a co-author of both these studies; Noah Goodman at Stanford; and their colleagues have explored how we could design computers that learn about the world as effectively as young children do. But the children and the teachers at a Marin County preschool that encourages exploration will be very different from the children and teachers in a direct instruction program in South Side Chicago. In other words, direct instruction made the children less curious and less likely to discover new information. It's this work that inspired these experiments.
For one group of children, the experimenter said: She said, "I'm going to show you how my toy works. Advertisement Developmental scientists like me explore the basic science of learning by designing controlled experiments. But it also makes children less likely to discover unexpected information and to draw unexpected conclusions. Why might children behave this way? When the teacher in the tube-toy experiment doesn't go looking for hidden features inside the tubes, the learner unconsciously thinks: Not as much as we would like, unfortunately, because it is a very difficult thing to study. Does direct teaching also make children less likely to draw new conclusions—or, put another way, does it make them less creative? There are skeptics, of course, including some parents, many preschool teachers, and even a few policy-makers. But there is an intrinsic trade-off between that kind of learning and the more wide-ranging learning that is so natural for young children. Then she might try a different series of three actions, and it would play music again. What do we already know about how teaching affects learning? That means a rich, stable, and safe world, with affectionate and supportive grown-ups, and lots of opportunities for exploration and play. It's this work that inspired these experiments. With the other children, the experimenter acted more like a teacher. Let's try this," she said. Perhaps direct instruction can help children learn specific facts and skills, but what about curiosity and creativity—abilities that are even more important for learning in the long run? Correction, March 17, Besides, how do you measure learning, anyway? It's this kind of learning, in fact, that allows kids to learn from teachers in the first place. For example, Daphna might start by squishing the toy, then pressing a pad on its top, then pulling a ring on its side, at which point the toy would play music. The children from the first group played with the toy longer and discovered more of its "hidden" features than those in the second group. Curiosity and creativity are harder to measure. In the first study, MIT professor Laura Schulz, her graduate student Elizabeth Bonawitz, and their colleagues looked at how 4-year-olds learned about a new toy with four tubes. It lets you get the right answers more quickly than you would otherwise.
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